Beethoven, Ludwig van

Period: Classic

Born: Sunday, December 16, 1770 in Bonn, Germany

Died: Monday, March 26, 1827 in Vienna, Austria

Nation of Origin: Germany/Austria

Major Works:

Nine Symphonies (5, 6, and 9 are most revered)
Egmont Overture

Choral Fantasia
Missa Solemnis

Concerto No. 5 in E-Flat, Opus 73 (Emperor)
Violin Concerto in D
Triple Concerto in C

Piano Sonatas:
Grande Sonata Pathétique
Moonlight Sonata
Pastoral Sonata

String Quartets: (17)
Harp Quartet
Rasoumoffsky Quartets
Great Fugue

Other Information:

Baptismal records show that Beethoven was baptized on December 17, 1770. His exact birthdate is not known but is probably December 16. Beethoven's work bridged the classical and romantic periods. His early work was heavily influenced by Mozart and Haydn. Gradually his music became more intense and romantic. Symphonies 5 through 9 represent the epitome of early Romantic music. His late string quartets are remarkable and daring. He was a master composer of Romantic music in many forms. The links below point to complete biographies and photographs.

General Bibliography:

Blume, Friedrich, with Norton, M. D. (Translator) and Norton, Herter (Translator), Classic and Romantic Music; A Comprehensive Survey, W. W. Norton & Company, November 1970, ISBN: 0393098680

Rosen, Charles, The Classical Style : Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, W. W. Norton & Company, March 1997, ISBN: 0393040208

Slonimsky, Nicolas and Kuhn, Laura; Editors, Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, Gale Group, December 2000, ISBN: 0028655257

Sadie, Stanley and Tyrrell, John; Editors, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Groves Dictionaries, Inc., January 2004, ISBN: 0195170679

Rutherford-Johnson, Tim, Kennedy, Michael, and Kennedy, Joyce The Oxford Dictionary of Music, Oxford University Press, 6th Edition, 2012, ISBN: 0199578109

Links to essays at other sites:

Please note: Each link will open in a new window.

Biographical essay from Wikipedia
Beethoven the Immortal
Alex Bronshtein's Beethoven site
All About Beethoven

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